### The Newtonian Physics

Gravity is rather a special force which is unusual which is different from many other forces like electrical forces , etc.
And is somewhere connected with geometric properties of space and time which has a great impact to the brain of our great scientist Sir Albert Einstien.
Here, in this post we gonna talk about the working of a great man on two historical terms.Which was named as………

The Newtonian Physics
(A introduction to general theory of relativity)

Ok, now we know the two terms Newton for which he is really famous for but I would like to take a part of it and want to reavel the real concepts and story behind the origination of a historical formula
F=G m1 m2 / R2

well you wanna more about NEWTON (click on this)
THE STORY BEGINS..............

The cellestial bodies like moon the earth, the subject of great intrest for every one of those scientists related to astronomy.

"I am proud to be an indian". why????

Because, the famous indian astronomer Arayabhatt studied these motions in great detail.Which he compiled in his book in Arayabhatt. He compiled in his book in circular motions pf every celestial body.

Then about after 1000 years. the brilliant combination of Tycho brahe and Johnan Kepler brought their formulation of three law of planetery motion

* 1st law (law of orbit)-

According to this all the planets revolve on an celestial path with a fixed focus placed on sun.

*2nd law (law of area)

According to this law all the planets revolve around the sun covers an equal area with respect to the radius vector
therefore it implies a case that is ......
A1=A2=A3

*3rd law (law of periods)

the square of the time period of a planet is propotional to the cube of the semimajor axis of the eclipse.

that was all a base for the next section of the story......

The year 1965 was one of the best part in the life of Newton and I would like to give title to that year
"THE FRUITFUL YEAR"
the yeaar made him think about focusing his attention towards the motion of the moon about the earth.
now let see what he thought.

Yes, it was all about the acceleration of the body around us.

The first question of newotn's mind ask......
what is the force that produces this
acceleration?

He came with a natural guess that actually earth is attracting the moon
that newton was sitting under an apple tree when an apple fell down from the tree on the earth .That sparked the idea that earth is attracting the apple down .

Have, you noticed that both the incidents are related to the study of accleration.

Newton come upon with some daring assumption which proved to be turning points in science and philosphy for every upcoming minds.
Let's see what happened next-

The acceleration of a body falling by the earth is equal to 9.8m/s

distance of the moon from the earth
distance of the apple from the earth

well guys lets have some conclusion form this.
the acceleration is inveresely propotional of the square of the distance between them
a=1/r2

and we know  F=m.a
so we can say,
F=m/r2

And it is atated in thied law of motion that,
the force on the earth due to the
body must be equal to the force
on the earth due to the body
so, now here comes the revolotionary fomula,
F=Mm/r2
or,                                F=Gm1m2/r2

the constant G is known as the universal constant of gravitation and its value was formulated to be 6.67*10-11

that's finishes the real story behind the mind game of NEWTON.

### An Introduction To Cosmology.

The universe is after all is really meant with some basic and complicated topics which needs a real concepts and that needs a separate space to be studied. Well more over every single thing want its own identity to be done in this whole universe it needs its own structure, its own study, its own way of enviromenting and etc. with all pohilosphical aspects.

The above paragraph can be summarized by saying-

“Why not to study  things with respect to the terms of observing the things particularly with their own philosophical and our sets of mind”.

Now, as I said we too want a seprate study to have the knowledge of The grand design of universe so we too have a different field to study them because even a child know that the  universe may be all about……..

with structures on a vast range of scales
planets orbit stars
stars are collected into galaxies
galaxies are gravitationally bound into clusters
even clusters of galaxies are found within larger superclusters

and many more………..
that’s really confusing I guess.

so in which field we gonna study this well I guess we got some thing to know more about them yes, its all about

“Cosmology”

Cosmology is the study of the universe, or cosmos, regarded as a whole. Attempting
to cover the study of the entire universe.

The universe is after all richly textured form its history and till now with its every minute
And every seconds. It would have been easy to get every single thing about universe if this line would have been existing as a truth…………

“The existence of an idealized perfectly smooth, model universe.”

Cosmology and Astronomy comes with the same aspects and can be summarized as

Astronomy is probably the oldest of all the sciences. It differs from virtually all other science disciplines in that it is not possible to carry out experimental tests in the laboratory. Instead, the astronomer can only observe what he sees in the

Universe and see if his observations fit the theories that have been put forward.Astronomers do, however, have one great advantage: in the Universe, there exist extreme states of matter which would be impossible to create here on Earth. This allows astronomers to make tests of key theories, such as Albert Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.We will see how two precise sets of observations, made with very simple instruments in the sixteenth century, were able to lead to a signifi cant understanding of our Solar System. In turn, these helped in the formulation of Newton’s Theory of Gravity and subsequently Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity – a theory of gravity which underpins the whole of modern cosmology. In order that these observations may be understood, some of the basics of observational astronomy are also discussed.

Cosmology binds up all the real concepts existing in the universe which really not easy to understand the complicity of the term UNIVERSE

A remarkable fact about the universe we find ourselves in is that it is capable of sustaining a planet like the Earth and the complex chemistry of life. On this planet we have achieved an understanding of the vast universe we inhabit, but this has been
achieved only in the past century. It was only as recently as the 1920s that we began to get a glimpse of the vastness of the universe of galaxies. The discovery of the microwave background radiation and the realization that the universe began in a hot Big Bang dates back only to 1965.
And it is only since the beginning of the new millennium that cosmology has become a precision science, with a strong consensus emerging about what kind of universe we inhabit.

That was all possible because of the existence of really a wide term named “cosmology”

### Evergreen Hubble's Idea

Now, we welcome the young scientist in the 1920's who is the combination of the great scientists in the past centuries.He is nor other than "EDWIN HUBBLE".

His contributions to our understanding of the universe came in two parts.

He was the first to determine by precise measurement the distances of galaxies, establishing that they were great but comparable galaxies in their own right,not objects in the Milky Way.

It was pretty cool to listen but it is just a begining.

### The Birth Of Thinking

As i have already said that "universe" is really a complicated topic .I feel that we are very much greatful that we are the one who are part of this earth (the only planet where life exist) and borned here as a human being (the most inteligent creature on earth).And got a chance to know the vast universe. Well every work starts from a basic concepts and we have acheived those basic concepts by the amazing workings of our great scientists in our passed centuries.

It was only as recently as the 1920s that we began to get a glimpse of the vastness of the universe of galaxies.And it is only since the beginning of the new millennium that cosmology has become a precision science, with a strong consensus emerging about what kind of universe we inhabit.

lets start our journey of what we gonna talk about............

Aristole lived on earth for around 384–322 BC who was the first to estimate the size ofthe Earth, using the angle of the shadow of a pole at noon at a location 100 miles south of the equator.whooo, that was really amazing but the thinking of universe was just started.Eratosthenes and Posidonius took part in the evaluation of searching about universe and used somewhat similar way as aristole did which passed around only 10% in the feild of cosmology.

Many thinkers started to give their veiws on the Astronomy and used different methods to know about different distances between two heavenly bodies i would like to pick one of them.Hipparcho, (In the second century BC) used a method----

"  solar eclipse method to estimate the distance of
the Moon from the earth and deduced a value for
earth by giving a value 59 Earth radii, a
little under the modern value of 60.3. "

well this method was use by aritochoros too. he used this method to estimate the distance of earth by lunar eclipse but was out by a factor of 20.

The next comes the GREEKS with their scholastic minds and gave the euclidian geometry which we students know it very well by "THE EUCLID GEOMETRY" which gave the idea for the ring of modern science and the idea of an infinite physical frame.
I would like to share this that medival people use to think tha stars were at a range of distances but according to our new era
the stars are now been calculated to light years it really strikes to be very  far. Then the arabic derived..........

"title reflects the crucial role of Arab scientists preserving
and extending the achievements of the Greeks."

Well that was not true and was provened by 'NICOLUS COPERNICUS'............
was aware of Arab work in his development of a Sun-centred (heliocentric) model of the solar system. A discovery of Copernicus that is less well-known is that he gave, for the first time, the correct relative distances of the Sun and planets. His values were within 5% of the modern values and the absolute scale of the solar system was not determined more accurately till the 19th century. The Copernican system also implied a huge increase in the minimum distance of the stars.

GALILELEO GALILIE the man behind the victory of 'NICOLUS COPERNICUS' as he took the wordings of his and and went against the thinking of the human society. He started his journey by discovery in 1609 of the moons of jupiter lent weight Copernicus’s picture of the planets orbiting the Sun. His discovery of mountains on the Moon showed this was another world like the Earth. And his resolution of the Milky Way into stars was the first step into the universe of galaxies. Galileo’s work on kinematics demonstrated the limitations of Aristotle’s physics and paved the way for the system created by Sir Isaac Newton (Newtonian mechanics) and still used for most everyday situations today. In his interesting dialogue with the philosopher Richard Bentley, Newton also discussed the idea of an infinite universe of stars.